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मंगलवार, 7 मार्च 2017

Literature Review in the research: process and technique

Literature Review
A literature review is
}  the revisiting of available documents (both published and unpublished) on a research topic, which contain information, ideas, data and evidence in order to identify  research gaps.
}  It stresses out methodological inconsistencies in the previous research.
}  It also gives justification as well as background to our new research. 
Purpose of Literature Review
       It provides a historical background for your research; 
       It gives an overview of the current context in which your research is situated, by referring to contemporary debates, issues and questions in the field; 
       It includes a discussion on relevant theories and concepts which underpin your research; 
       It introduces relevant terminology and provides definitions to clarify how terms are being used in the context of your own work;
       It describes related research in the field and shows how your research work extends or challenges this or addresses gap in the work in the field; 
       It provides supporting evidence for a cause, for which you are going to undertake a new research.
Source of information
}  Books (Text Books-Specialized Books-Reference Books)
}  Journal Articles
}  Published Literature Review of a Subject / Field (ICSSR Series)
}  Grey Literature (Reports, Theses, Conference Proceedings, Working Papers, media reports, letters and personal diaries-(Not formally published by a publisher )
Process of Reviewing Literature (Searching, Reading, Writing)
}  Locating previous study on the issue
}  Exploring ideas around the topic
}  Developing Categories and theme for reading
}  Identification of Theories, Concepts and Methodology.
}  Developing categories of themes for writing.
}  Specifying heading and sub headings for review.
}  Writing and revisiting drafts
}  Developing own argument
}  Justifying research problem
}  Formulating research questions
}  Writing review
Ordering of Reviews
Panchayatiraj in Tribal Areas of Madhya Pradesh
Panchayatiraj in Madhya Pradesh
Panchayatiraj in India

After reviewing….
}  Mention the research gap and justification of your work (rationale of the study).
}  Specify objectives of your study.
}  Specify research questions
}  Justify your methodology to deal with the objectives.
}  Chalk out method and data collection strategy for the study.
Sampling technique

Population or sample
¡  A population is any well-defined set of units of analysis: people, countries, events, years
¡  A sample, by contrast, is any subset of units collected in some manner from the population
¡  Due to considerations of time, money and other costs, data collection is done from a sample and not entire population
¡  Information based on sample is less accurate or more subject to error than that based on entire poulation
The Basics of Sampling
¡  Studies of public opinion and voting behavior always rely on sampling
¡  Empirical findings that emerge from a sample apply to only that population: avoid generalizations
¡  Data are obtained according to certain well-established rules
¡  A sample of blood is a subset of all the blood in human body/ few grains of rice from the entire vessel of cooked rice
Types of Samples
¡  Two basic types of samples: probability and nonprobability sample
¡  Probability sample is one in which each element is in the total population has a known probability of being included in the sample
¡  Nonprobability  sample is one in which each element in the population has an unknown probability of being included in the sample
¡  Probability samples are preferred to nonprobability samples
Types of Probability Samples
¡  Major types of probability samples:
  1. Simple random samples
  2. Systematic samples
  3. Stratified samples
  4. Cluster samples
  5. Telephone samples
Simple Random Samples (SRS)
¡  Each element has an equal chance of being sampled
¡  List of all the elements in the population must be available
¡  Proper method for selecting those elements
¡  Two common methods of selecting a sample: generate a random numbers table manually or by computer;
¡  ‘by the lot’ method- all elements tossed in a hat and elements are randomly drawn till the desired sample is reached
Systematic Samples (SS)
¡  Elements are selected from a list at predetermined numbers in a systematic manner
¡  This number is called the sampling interval which is decided after a random start
¡  SS is very useful when sampling from a long list of population elements
¡  Bias occurs in SS if population element are ranked according to a characteristic or a pattern
Stratified Samples
¡  Elements sharing one or more characteristics are grouped and elements are selected from each group in proportion to the group’s representation in the total population
¡  Sampling may be done either by simple randomization or by systematic sampling from each stratum
¡  Stratified sample may be proportionate or disproportionate
¡  Proportionate sampling is in proportion to the size of the population
¡  Sampling fraction: size of the desired sample divided by the size of the population
¡  Disproportionate sample is taken when a stratum  is either underrepresented or overrepresented
Cluster Samples (CS)
¡  CS is used when there is no list of population element
¡  Sampling frame is divided into clusters of elements and listed as sampling units
¡  Sampling is done from these sampling units
¡  There may be multi-stage clustering of sample units
¡  A drawback of CS is greater imprecision due to sampling error ( discrepancy between an observed and a true value)
Nonprobability samples (NS)
¡  In NS each element in the population has an unknown probability of being selected
¡  NS may be preferred over PS when latter is too expensive or population is ill-defined
¡  NS may be preferred when unusual cases may be more informative than representative ones
¡  NS may be of different types: purposive, convenience, quota, snowball
¡  Purposive sample: the goal is to study a diverse and usually a limited number of observations
¡  Convenience sample: easy for researcher to select; good for exploratory research
¡  Quota sample: elements are sampled proportionately in a purposive and convenient way
¡  Snowball sample: respondents are used to identify other persons for inclusion in the sample; useful to select difficult-to-locate population  
research problems
a research problem is one which requires a researcher to find out the best solution for the
given problem.
any question that you want answered and any assumption or assertion that you want to              challenge            or  investigate can become a research problem        or a research topic  for your study.
According to Powers,  Meenaghan and  T woomey (1985:38), ‘Potential                research questions may occur to us on a regular basis,     but  the process  of formulating them in a meaningful way is not at all an easy task. ‘First identifying and then      specifying a research problem might seem  like research tasks   that ought to be easy and quickly accomplished. However,            such is often not the case’  (Y egidis & W einback 1991:35).
Sources                of research problems
Considerations in selecting a research problem
Measurement of concepts
Level of expertise
Availability of data
Ethical issues
Steps in                formulating a research  problem
Step 1 Identify  a broad field or  subject area of  interest to you
Step 2 Dissect    the         broad    area       into        subareas
Step 3 Select      what      is             of            most      interest                to            you
Step 4 Raise        research             questions.
Step 5 Formulate             objectives

Step 6 Assess     your      objectives

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